Aircraft Gun List

The purpose of this page is to identify and lay out the basic details of every known aircraft gun developed by the Japanese military during WWII, of which there is often no data.

Table is incomplete. Sources for individual specs are being added.
Last Update FEB 06 2024

Army Machine Guns & Cannons

Gun NameFormatCartridgeVelocityRPMWeightFull LengthRecoilFeedDesignManufacturePlanned* or Fitted A/CNotes
八九式旋回機関銃
Type 89 Flexible Machine Gun
Nambu-type gas-operated7.7x58mmSR780m/s1,40028.2kg1,165mmMagazineKokura Army Arsenal, Nagoya Army ArsenalType 87 Heavy Bomber, Type 88 Recon Plane, Type 88 Light Bomber, Ki-1, Ki-2, Ki-3, Type 92 Recon Planetwin barrel
八九式旋回機関銃(特)
Type 89 Flexible Machine Gun (Special)
Nambu-type gas-operated7.7x58mmSR810m/s1,40024.8kg1,079mmMagazineKokura Army Arsenal, Nagoya Army ArsenalKi-32, Ki-48Imodification of magazine
八九式固定機関銃
Type 89 Fixed Machine Gun
Vickers-type recoil-operated7.7x58mmSR820m/s1,10012.3kg1,035mmBeltKokura Army Arsenal, Nagoya Army ArsenalKi-21I Otsu, Ki-21II Kou, Ki-27 Kou, Ki-27 Otsu, Ki-43I Kou, Ki-43I Otsu, Ki-44I Kou, Ki-44II Kou, Ki-61I Koumain Army fixed 7.7mm, domestic Vickers E
テ1・試製単銃身旋回機関銃
Te-1, Experimental Single-Barrel Flexible Machine Gun
Vickers-type recoil-operated7.7x58mmSRMagazineKi-21I Kou, Ki-21I Otsuflexible development of Type 89 Fixed MG
テ2・試製多銃身旋回機関銃
Te-2
, Experimental Multi-Barrel Flexible Machine Gun
7.7x58mmSRtriple barrel development of Type 89 Flexible MG
テ3・一式旋回機関銃
Te-3, Type 1 Flexible Machine Gun
BREN-type gas-operated7.92x57mm750m/s2,20016.7kg1,180mmMagazineNagoya Army ArsenalKi-48II, Ki-66twin barrel
テ4・試製単銃身旋回機関銃二型
Te-4, Experimental Single-Barrel Flexible Machine Gun Mod.2
Nambu-type gas-operated7.7x58mm SR810m/s7309.3kg1,069mmMagazineKokura Army Arsenal, Nagoya Army ArsenalKi-21II Kou, Ki-48I, Ki-49I, Ki-49IImodified Type 89 Flexible MG with single-barrel
テ5・試製単銃身固定機関銃
Te-5, Experimental Single-Barrel Fixed Machine Gun
Browning-type recoil-operated7.92x57mm810m/s1,450BeltJapan Special Steelbecame Type 4 HMG for tanks
テ6・試製複銃身固定機関銃
Te-6, Experimental Double-Barrel Fixed Machine Gun
7.7x58mmSRNagoya Army ArsenalTe-4 revision
九八式旋回機関銃
Type 98 Flexible Machine Gun
Rheinmetall-type recoil-operated7.92x57mm750m/s1,1007.2kg1,078mmMagazineNagoya Army ArsenalKi-48IIdomestic MG15
ホ101・試製十二.七粍固定機関砲
Ho-101, Experimental 12.7mm Fixed Machine Cannon
Gas-operated12.7x81mmSRKokura Army ArsenalType 89 Fixed MG with increased caliber
ホ102・試製十二.七粍固定機関砲
Ho-102
, Experimental 12.7mm Fixed Machine Cannon
Breda-type12.7x81mmSRBR.20Breda-SAFAT copy
ホ103・一式十二.七粍固定機関砲
Ho-103
, Type 1 12.7mm Fixed Machine Cannon
Browning-type recoil-operated12.7x81mmSR780m/s80023kg1,267mmBeltCentral Mfg.Nagoya Army Arsenal, Central Mfg.Ki-43I Otsu, Ki-43I Hei, Ki-43II, Ki-43III Kou, Ki-44I Kou, Ki-44I Otsu, Ki-44I Hei, Ki-44II Kou, Ki-44II Otsu, Ki-44II Hei, Ki-45 Kai Kou, Ki-45 Kai Otsu, Ki-61I Kou, Ki-61I Otsu, Ki-61I Hei, Ki-61I Tei, Ki-61II Kai, Ki-100I, Ki-100IImain Army 12.7mm, fixed version
ホ103・一式十二.七粍旋回機関砲
Ho-103, Type 1 12.7mm Flexible Machine Cannon
Browning-type recoil-operated12.7x81mmSR750m/s1,0007.2kg1,267mmKi-21II Otsu, Ki-48II Hei, Ki-67I, Ki-67II, Ki-109main Army 12.7mm, flexible version
ホ104・試製十二.七粍旋回機関砲
Ho-104
, Experimental 12.7mm Flexible Machine Cannon
Gas-operated12.7x81mmSRKokura Army Arsenal
ホ105
Ho-105
12.7x81mmSRno record, presumed to exist
ホ106
Ho-106
12.7x81mmSRtwin barrel
九四式旋回機関砲
Type 94 Flexible Machine Cannon
Oerlikon-type Recoil-operated20x99mmRB680m/s28054kg1,765mmMagazineKi-20
ホ1・試製二十粍旋回機関砲
Ho-1
, Experimental 20mm Flexible Machine Cannon
Nambu-type gas-operated20x125mm820m/s40032.63kg1,735mmMagazineJapan Special Steel, GikenKokura Army ArsenalKi-49I, Ki-49II
ホ2・試製二十粍固定機関砲
Ho-2, Experimental 20mm Fixed Machine Cannon
20mm
ホ3・試製二十粍固定機関砲二型
Ho-3, Experimental 20mm Fixed Machine Cannon Mod.2
Nambu-type gas-operated20x125mm846m/s40045kg1,740mmMagazineJapan Special Steel, GikenKokura Army ArsenalKi-45 Kai Kou, Ki-45 Kai Hei
ホ4・試製二十粍旋回機関銃四型
Ho-4, Experimental 20mm Flexible Machine Cannon Mod.4
20mmJapan Special Steel
ホ5・二式軽量二十粍固定機関砲
Ho-5, Type 2 Lightweight 20mm Fixed Machine Cannon
Browning-type recoil-operated20x94mm735m/s75037kg1,444mm0.8tBeltCentral Mfg.Kokura Army Arsenal, Nagoya Army Arsenal, HitachiKi-43III Otsu, Ki-45 Kai Tei, Ki-46 Otsu, Ki-46 Otsu+Hei, Ki-61I Tei, Ki-61II, Ki-67I, Ki-67II, Ki-83, Ki-84 Kou, Ki-84 Otsu, Ki-84 Hei, Ki-93, Ki-100, Ki-102 Kou, Ki-102 Otsu, Ki-102 Hei, Ki-201*main Army 20mm
ホ6・試製翼内二十粍固定機関砲
Ho-6, Experimental in-Wing 20mm Fixed Machine Cannon
Gas-operated20mmKokura Army Arsenal
ホ7・試製二十粍旋回機関砲
Ho-7
, Experimental 20mm Flexible Machine Cannon
20mmNagoya Army Arsenal
ホ10
Ho-10
20mm
ホ11
Ho-11
20mm
ホ12
Ho-12
20x125mm900m/s60054.9kg2,009mmBelt
マウザー
Mauser
Recoil-operated20x82mm700m/s80042kg1,766mmBeltMauserMauserKi-61I HeiMG 151/20
ホ式二十五粍機関砲
Type Ho 25mm Machine Cannon
25mm
ホ51
Ho-51
Browning-type recoil-operated25x115mm692m/s40055kgCentral Mfg.
ホ52
Ho-52
Browning-type recoil-operated25x150mm
ホ151
Ho-151
30mm
ホ152
Ho-152
30mm
ホ153
Ho-153
30mm
ホ154
Ho-154
30mmno record, presumed to exist
ホ155I・試製三十粍固定機関砲
Ho-155I, Experimental 30mm Fixed Machine Cannon
Browning-type recoil-operated30x114mm700m/s60050kg1,930mm1.5tBeltNagoya Army ArsenalNagoya Army ArsenalKi-83, Ki-94II, Ki-102 Hei
ホ155II・試製三十粍固定機関砲
Ho-155II, Experimental 30mm Fixed Machine Cannon
Browning-type recoil-operated30x114mm700m/s50044kg1,510mm1.5tBeltNagoya Army ArsenalNagoya Army Arsenal, Kokura Army ArsenalKi-84I Hei, Ki-200*, Ki-201*
ホ156
Ho-156
30mmvelocity increased Ho-155
九八式三十七粍戦車砲
Type 98 37mm Tank Cannon
37mmKi-45 Kai Otsu
ホ201・試製三十七粍旋回機関砲一型
Ho-201, Experimental 37mm Flexible Machine Cannon Mod.1
Gas-operated37mmKokura Army Arsenal
ホ202試製三十七旋回機関砲二型
Ho-202, Experimental 37mm Flexible Machine Cannon Mod.2
Recoil-operated37mmNagoya Army Arsenal
ホ203・試製三十七粍旋回機関砲三型
Ho-203, Experimental 37mm Flexible Machine Cannon Mod.3
Recoil-operated37x111mmR570m/s14080kg1,500mm0.7tMagazineJapan Special SteelJapan Special Steel, Nagoya Army Arsenal, Kokura Army ArsenalKi-45 Kai Hei
ホ204・試製三十七粍旋回機関砲四型
Ho-204, Experimental 37mm Flexible Machine Cannon Mod.4
Browning-type recoil-operated37x144mm710m/s400130kg2,390mm1.3tMagazineCentral Mfg.Central Mfg., Nagoya Army Arsenal, Kokura Army ArsenalKi-46III Otsu+Hei, Ki-102 Kou, Ki-108, Ki-108 Kai
ホ205
Ho-205
Browning-type recoil-operated37mmreduced scale Ho-204
ホ206
Ho-206
37mm
ホ301
Ho-301
Oerlikon-type API-blowback40mm220m/s40040kg1,500mm0.8tMagazineCentral Mfg.Nagoya Army ArsenalKi-44II Otsu, Ki-45 Kai Bo
ホ251
Ho-251
47mm700m/s250350kg2,667mmKokura Army Arsenalprobably automatic Type 1 47mm
ホ401・試製四十粍固定機関砲
Ho-401, Experimental 40mm Fixed Machine Cannon
Recoil-operated57x121mmR500m/s80150kg2,000mm1.0tMagazineJapan Special SteelJapan Special Steel, Nagoya Army ArsenalKi-102 Otsu
ホ402
Ho-402
Recoil-operated57x477mmR700m/s80400kg4,500mm1.5tMagazineNagoya Army ArsenalKi-93*for killing tanks
ホ403
Ho-403
57mm700m/s340kg2,794mmKokura Army Arsenal
ホ3057
Ho-3057
57mmrocket gun
ホ3157
Ho-3157
57x187mmRB
「キ109」搭載砲
‘Ki-109’ Mounted Cannon
75x497mmR720m/s20740kg3,312mm4.8tManualKi-109Type 88 7cm AA,
to kill stratbombers
ホ501
Ho-501
75x185mmR500m/s60450kgKi-93*uses Type 41 Mountain Gun cartridge
ホ502
Ho-502
75mmhigher velocity Ho-501
ホ503
Ho-503
75mmno record, presumed to exist
ホ504
Ho-504
75mmno record, presumed to exist
ホ505
Ho-505
75mmrecoilless
ホ506
Ho-506
75mmno record, presumed to exist
ホ507
Ho-507
75mmrocket gun
ホ3057
Ho-3075
75mmlarger Ho-3057
ホ3157
Ho-3175
75mmlarger Ho-3157
ホ601
Ho-601
120mm300m/sfor attacking small vessels
ホ701
Ho-701
150mmlarger Ho-601 plan

Navy Machine Guns & Cannons

Gun NameFormatCartridgeVelocityRPMWeightLengthRecoilFeedDesignManufacturePlanned* or Fitted A/CNotes
九二式七粍七旋回機銃一型
Type 92 7.7mm Flexible Machine Gun Mod.1
Lewis-type gas-operated(1)7.7x56mmR745m/s(1)700(1)8.2kg(1)967mm(1)Magazine (97 rnds)(1)Toyokawa Navy Arsenal, Yokosuka Navy ArsenalF1M2(1), D3A2(1), D4Y1(1), B6N2(1), Q1W1(1), E13A1(1), E14Y1(1),E15K1(1), E16A1(1), H8K2(1), H8K3(1)
九二式七粍七旋回機銃一型改一
Type 92 7.7mm Flexible Machine Gun Mod.1
Kai 1
Lewis-type gas-operated7.7x56mmR
九七式七粍七固定機銃一型
Type 97 7.7mm Fixed Machine Gun
Mod.3 Kai 1
Vickers-type recoil-operated7.7x56mmR745m/s86013.3kg1,033mmBeltSuzuka Navy Arsenal, Yokosuka Navy Arsenal
九七式七粍七固定機銃三型改二
Type 97 7.7mm Fixed Machine Gun Mod.3 Kai 2
Vickers-type recoil-operated(1)7.7x56mmR745m/s(1)860(1)13.3kg(1)1,033mm(1)BeltD3A2(1), D4Y1(1), F1M2(1), A6M1(1), A6M2(1), A6M2-N(1), A6M5(1), J1N1-R(1), J2M2(1), N1K1(1), N1K1-J(1), E16A1(1)left or right feeding
一式七粍九旋回機銃一型
Type 1 7.9mm Flexible Machine Gun Mod.1
Rheinmetall-type blowback-operated(1)7.92x57mm785m/s(1)1,000(1)6.9kg(1)1,080mm(1)Magazine (75 rnds)(1)Tagajō Navy Arsenal, Yokosuka Navy ArsenalC6N1(1)domestic MG15
二式十三粍旋回機銃一型
Type 2 13mm Flexible Machine Gun Mod.1
Rheinmetall-type recoil-operated(1)13.2x64mmB750m/s(1)900(1)17.1kg(1)1,169mm(1)Belt(1)Toyokawa Navy ArsenalR1Y1*(1), M6A1(1), G7M1*(1), G8N1(1)domestic MG131
三式十三粍固定機銃一型
Type 3 13mm Fixed Machine Gun
Mod.1
Browning-type recoil-operated(1)13.2x99mm800m/s(1)800(1)28kg(1)1,330mm(1)BeltSuzuka Navy Arsenal, Toyokawa Navy Arsenal
三式十三粍旋回機銃一型
Type 3 13mm Flexible Machine Gun Mod.1
Browning-type recoil-operated13.2x99mm800m/s80034kg1,550mmSuzuka Navy Arsenal, Toyokawa Navy ArsenalG4M3(1), G7M1*(1)
十四試十四粍固定機銃一型
Test-14 14mm Fixed Machine Gun Mod.1
Oerlikon-type API-blowback14.5x100mmRB970m/s63028kg1,640mmMagazine
九九式二十粍一號旋回機銃一型
Type 99 20mm Mk.1 Flexible Machine Gun Mod.1
Oerlikon-type API-blowback20x72mmRB600m/s450MagazineGreat Japan Weapons
九九式二十粍一號旋回機銃一型改一
Type 99 20mm Mk.1 Flexible Machine Gun Mod.1 Kai 1
Oerlikon-type API-blowback20x72mmRB600m/s450MagazineGreat Japan Weaponsmodification to shell ejection port
九九式二十粍一號旋回機銃一一型
Type 99 20mm Mk.1 Flexible Machine Gun Mod.11
Oerlikon-type API-blowback20x72mmRB600m/s520MagazineGreat Japan Weapons
九九式二十粍一號旋回機銃一一型改一
Type 99 20mm Mk.1 Flexible Machine Gun Mod.11 Kai 1
Oerlikon-type API-blowback20x72mmRB600m/s520MagazineGreat Japan Weaponsmodification to shell ejection port
九九式二十粍一號旋回機銃一一型改二
Type 99 20mm Mk.1 Flexible Machine Gun Mod.11 Kai 2
Oerlikon-type API-blowback(1)20x72mmRB600m/s(1)535(1)23.2kg(1)1,360mm(1)Magazine (30/45 rnds)(1)Great Japan WeaponsP1Y!(1), G4M1, G4M2(1), G4M3(1), H8K2(1), H8K3(1)
九九式二十粍一號旋回機銃四型
Type 99 20mm Mk.1 Flexible Machine Gun Mod.4
Oerlikon-type API-blowback20x72mmRB600m/s535MagazineGreat Japan WeaponsG4M2(1), H8K2(1), H8K3(1)Fixed Mk.1 Mod.3 used with a powered mount
九九式二十粍一號固定機銃二型
Type 99 20mm Mk.1 Fixed Machine Gun Mod.2
Oerlikon-type API-blowback20x72mmRB600m/s52023kg1,331mmMagazineGreat Japan WeaponsGreat Japan Weapons, Toyokawa Navy Arsenal
九九式二十粍一號固定機銃二型改一
Type 99 20mm Mk.1 Fixed Machine Gun Mod.2 Kai 1
Oerlikon-type API-blowback(1)20x72mmRB600m/s(1)535(1)23.3kg(1)1,360mm(1)Magazine (60/100 rnds)(1)Great Japan WeaponsGreat Japan Weapons, Toyokawa Navy Arsenal
九九式二十粍一號固定機銃三型
Type 99 20mm Mk.1 Fixed Machine Gun Mod.3
Oerlikon-type API-blowback(1)20x72mmRB600m/s(1)535(1)23.3kg(1)1,360mm(1)Magazine (60/100 rnds)(1)Great Japan WeaponsGreat Japan Weapons, Toyokawa Navy ArsenalN1K1(1), A6M2(1), A6M2-N(1), J2M2(1)electrical firing,
otherwise prev
九九式二十粍一號固定機銃四型
Type 99 20mm Mk.1 Fixed Machine Gun Mod.4
Oerlikon-type API-blowback20x72mmRB600m/s55027.2kg1,331mmBeltGreat Japan WeaponsGreat Japan Weapons, Toyokawa Navy ArsenalJ2M3(1)change to belt feed
九九式二十粍二號固定機銃三型
Type 99 20mm Mk.2 Fixed Machine Gun Mod.3
Oerlikon-type API-blowback(1)20x101mmRB750m/s(1)480(1)33.5kg(1)1,890mm(1)Magazine (100 rnds)(1)Great Japan WeaponsGreat Japan Weapons, Tagajō Navy ArsenalJ1N1-S(1), J1N1-R(1), A6M5(1), G4M2(1), G4M3(1), H8K2(1), H8K3(1)electrical firing
九九式二十粍二號固定機銃三型特
Type 99 20mm Mk.2 Fixed Machine Gun Mod.3 Special
Oerlikon-type API-blowback20x101mmRB750m/s48033.5kg1,890mmMagazineGreat Japan WeaponsGreat Japan Weapons, Tagajō Navy Arsenalpneumatic charging pump
九九式二十粍二號固定機銃四型
Type 99 20mm Mk.2 Fixed Machine Gun Mod.4
Oerlikon-type API-blowback(1)20x101mmRB750m/s(1)500(1)30kg(1)1,888mm(1)Belt(1)Great Japan WeaponsGreat Japan Weapons, Tagajō Navy ArsenalJ2M3(1), N1K2-J(1), A7M1(1), A7M2, J4M1(1), J5N1(1), J6K1*(1), P1Y2-S(1), G7M1*(1), S1A1(1)change to belt feed
九九式二十粍二號固定機銃四型
Type 99 20mm Mk.2 Fixed Machine Gun Mod.4
Oerlikon-type API-blowback20x101mmRB750m/s62038kg1,885mm1.5tBeltGreat Japan WeaponsGreat Japan Weapons, Tagajō Navy ArsenalJ2M3(1), N1K2-J(1), A7M1(1), A7M2, J4M1(1), J5N1(1), J6K1*(1), P1Y2-S(1), G7M1*(1), G8N1(1), S1A1(1)fire-rate improved in production
九九式二十粍二號固定機銃五型
Type 99 20mm Mk.2 Fixed Machine Gun Mod.5
Oerlikon-type API-blowback(2)20x101mmRB750m/s(2)750(2)38kg(2)1,840mm(2)2.5t(2)Belt(2)Great Japan WeaponsGreat Japan Weapons, Tagajō Navy ArsenalA7M3*fire-rate improved
十八試二十粍固定機銃
Test-18 20mm Fixed Machine Gun
Gas-operated(2)20x98mm750m/s(2)700(2)42kg(2)1,950mm(2)1.5t(2)Belt(2)KūgishōJ6K1*
十七試二十五粍固定機銃
Test-17 25mm Fixed Machine Gun
Browning-type Recoil-operated25x163mm750m/s45075kg2,240mm
二式三十粍固定機銃一型
Type 2 30mm Fixed Machine Gun
Mod.1
Oerlikon-type API-blowback(1)30x92mm710m/s(1)400(1)50.9kg(1)2,095mm(1)Magazine (42 rnds)(1)Great Japan WeaponsGreat Japan WeaponsA6M3, J2M2, P1Y2-S
十七試三十粍固定機銃
Test-17 30mm Fixed Machine Gun
五式三十粍固定機銃一型
Type 5 30mm Fixed Machine Gun Mod.1
Gas/recoil/API-operated30x122mm750m/s35070kg2,090mmBeltKūgishō, Japan Special SteelToyokawa Navy ArsenalJ2M5, J4M1, J5N1, D4Y2-S, J7W1, A7M3-J*, S1A1(1)
十七試四十粍固定機銃
Test-17 40mm Fixed Machine Gun
Recoil-operated(2)40x150mm700m/s(2)220(2)180kg(2)2,500mm(2)3.0t(2)Belt(2)
仮称五式空八糎砲
Tentatively Named Type 5 Aerial 8cm Cannon
Manual-loaded(2)76.2x405mmR600m/s(2)520kg(2)3,200mm(2)4.0t(2)P1Ybased on Type 3rd-Year 8cm AA,
to kill stratbombers

  1. Translations and Interrogations No. 16 (CINCPAC-CINCPOA) 20 Jan 1945
  2. 主要試作兵器ノ要目性能表(第一海軍技術廠)終戦後

6 responses to “Aircraft Gun List”

  1. ZeroTheHero Avatar
    ZeroTheHero

    Absolutely outstanding!

    I must say the Te-3 Type 1 flexible machine gun really jumped out at me- 2,200 rpm cyclic rate?! The highest I’ve seen of any WW2 machine gun.
    Prototype? Multi-barrel? Belt-fed? Are just a few of the questions I have.

    Was a Ginga ever fitted with the Type 5 Aerial 8cm cannon?!

    Looking forward to any and all future updates to this section as well!

    Thank you!

    1. qaz Avatar

      Hello, sorry for replying late,

      Te-3 is a double barrel MG (I added a note now). It received a service name and was fitted to some planes, but did not pass testing for durability. The performance of the gun is contradictory between sources.

      Type 5 Aerial 8 cm Cannon was based on 3rd Year Type AA. It was fitted to Ginga and test fired many times in 1945 according to one record, but it is unclear if it flew (it’s written that they managed to stop the decomposition of the airframe while firing…). More clearly, it did not take part in combat. It’s basically the Navy version of Ki-109, and due to 76.2 mm caliber, the largest Japanese aircraft gun actually built.

      1. ZeroTheHero Avatar
        ZeroTheHero

        A late reply is better than no reply at all. There is a series of pics of a Ki-48, with a twin-barreled MG in the upper rear position, (At Clark Field, IIRC). I’m fairly certain I’ve seen pics of another aircraft also armed with the same MG, but can’t recall.

        It would be fantastic to find pics of the Ginga armed with the Type 5, Aerial 8cm cannon.

      2. ZeroTheHero Avatar
        ZeroTheHero

        Here’s the link featuring a doubled-barreled MG on a Ki-48.

        https://www.worldwarphotos.info/gallery/japan/aircrafts/ki-48/close-up-of-ki-48-rear-gun-position-45/

        The Twin-Barrel Type 89 seems to have a wider space between the barrels and sectioned cheese-wheel type mag. Whereas the gun linked above has closer spaced barrels and saddle-type mag. The Arawasi blog here: https://arawasi-wildeagles.blogspot.com/search/label/Kawasaki%20Ki-48%20%22Lily%22 shows a Ki-48 with Type 89 Twin-barrel MG, with the sectioned cheese-wheel mag (for lack of a better term, LOL)

        1. qaz Avatar

          That’s quite right, this is a Ki-48-II equipped with a Type 1 Flexible MG (Te-3).

          Japanese Army MGs are quite poorly understood and the designations are often mixed up. Especially in English, but even in Japanese books.

          Here you can see that the Ki-48-I was equipped with 試製単銃身旋回機関銃二型 [Exp. Single-Barrel Flexible MG Mod.2], which is Te-4, in the nose and lower rear stations.
          You can also see that Ki-48-I was equipped with 八九式旋回機関銃(特)[Type 89 Flexible MG (Special)] in the upper rear station.
          https://karyu.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/01/ki-48-weapons.png

          On the other hand, as in your photo, you can see here that the later Ki-48-II variant was equipped with the 一式旋回機関銃 (Type 1 Flexible MG), which is the newer Te-3, in the upper rear station.
          https://karyu.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/01/ki-48ii-upper-gun.png
          And you can see in the second link that the lower rear station of Ki-48-II was equipped with the newer 九八式旋回機関銃 (Type 98 Flexible MG). The nose was also equipped with the Type 98.
          https://karyu.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/01/ki-48ii-lower-gun.png

          I need to add much more detail to these tables, but at the moment my current site formatting does not allow it to fit, and I am a bit busy for now…

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